Brain differences in ADHD


Brain differences in ADHD
  1. Brain differences in ADHD
    sciencedaily.com
    Largest imaging study of ADHD to date identifies differences in five regions of the brain, with greatest differences seen in children rather than…
    Health

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with the delayed development of five brain regions and should be considered a brain disorder, according to a study published in The Lancet Psychiatry.

The study is the largest to look at the brain volumes of people with ADHD, involving more than 3,200 people. The authors say the findings could help improve understanding of the disorder, and might be important in challenging beliefs that ADHD is a label for difficult children or the result of poor parenting.

ADHD symptoms include inattention and/or hyperactivity and acting impulsively. The disorder affects more than one in 20 (5.3%) under-18 year olds, and two-thirds of those diagnosed continue to experience symptoms as adults.

Previous studies have linked differences in brain volume with the disorder, but small sample sizes mean results have been inconclusive. Areas thought to be involved in ADHD are located in the basal ganglia -- a part of the brain that controls emotion, voluntary movement and cognition -- and research has previously found that the caudate and putamen regions within the ganglia are smaller in people with ADHD.

The new international study measured differences in the brain structure of 1,713 people with a diagnosis of ADHD and 1,529 people without, all aged between four and 63 years old.

All 3,242 people had an MRI scan to measure their overall brain volume, and the size of seven regions of the brain that were thought to be linked to ADHD -- the pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus. The researchers also noted whether those with ADHD had ever taken psychostimulant medication, for example Ritalin.

The study found that overall brain volume and five of the regional volumes were smaller in people with ADHD -- the caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus.

"These differences are very small -- in the range of a few percent -- so the unprecedented size of our study was crucial to help identify these. Similar differences in brain volume are also seen in other psychiatric disorders, especially major depressive disorder." said lead author Dr Martine Hoogman, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The differences observed were most prominent in the brains of children with ADHD, but less obvious in adults with the disorder. Based on this, the researchers propose that ADHD is a disorder of the brain, and suggest that delays in the development of several brain regions are characteristic of ADHD.

Besides the caudate nucleus and putamen, for which previous studies have already shown links to ADHD, researchers were able to conclusively link the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus to ADHD.

The researchers hypothesise that the amygdala is associated with ADHD through its role in regulating emotion, and the nucleus accumbens may be associated with the motivation and emotional problems in ADHD via its role in reward processing. The hippocampus' role in the disorder might act through its involvement in motivation and emotion.

At the time of their MRI scan, 455 people with ADHD were receiving psychostimulant medication, and looking back further, 637 had had the medication in their lifetime. The different volumes of the five brain regions involved in ADHD were present whether or not people had taken medication, suggesting the…

  1. Life isn't pretty : Mom shares photos of son to show harsh reality of cancer

    Hispanicamericans.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:32 hispanicamericans.com
    One day, as Jessica Medinger watched her 10-year-old son struggle to fight his second battle with cancer, she felt compelled to take a picture and share it on Facebook with a message: “Life isn’t pretty, and cancer destroys a person.” The mom from Tomball, Texas, posted the photo of her “skin and bones” son on International Cancer Day after she carried him to the bathroom in a pair of Pull-Ups. Expecting backlash, Medinger defended her decision to share the photo in a paragraphs-long post. …
  2. Transgender wrestler’s state bid spotlights Texas policy

    Federalnewsradio.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:12 federalnewsradio.com
    A 17-year-old high school wrestler has qualified for the girls state tournament in Texas while transitioning from female to male The post Transgender wrestler’s state bid spotlights Texas policy appeared first on…
  3. Adopted kids see long-lasting effects of Romanian orphanages

    Federalnewsradio.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:12 federalnewsradio.com
    A study found that Romanian children adopted from overcrowded orphanages in the 1990s were more likely to suffer psychological problems as adults compared to other children taken in by British families The post Adopted kids see long-lasting effects of Romanian orphanages appeared first on…
  4. NY lawmakers: Cuomo is moving to cut funds to fight cancer

    Federalnewsradio.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:12 federalnewsradio.com
    New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo is seeking to cut $25 million from public health programs that pay to fight cancer and diabetes The post NY lawmakers: Cuomo is moving to cut funds to fight cancer appeared first on…
  5. Police Move in on Water Protectors Who Remain at Standing Rock

    Colorlines.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:05 colorlines.com
    Yessenia Funes/NOWPolice ViolenceTrump PresidencyNative AffairsHealthEnvironmentTags: Dakota Access PipelineEnvironmental JusticeStanding RockStanding Rock Sioux TribeOceti Sakowin CampNorth Dakota#NoDAPLAnyone who remained at the Oceti Sakowin Camp outside Standing Rock, North Dakota, in protest of the Dakota Access Pipeline faced arrest as of 2 p.m. CT today (February 22). Water protectors, who remained at the site despite the state’s harsh winter, received notice on February 15 that…
  6. Transgender wrestler's state bid spotlights Texas policy

    Fox5vegas.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:05 fox5vegas.com
    A 17-year-old high school wrestler has qualified for the girls state tournament in Texas while transitioning from female to…
  7. Adopted kids see long-lasting effects of Romanian orphanages

    Fox5vegas.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:05 fox5vegas.com
    A study found that Romanian children adopted from overcrowded orphanages in the 1990s were more likely to suffer psychological problems as adults compared to other children taken in by British…
  8. Why I Founded EmpowHER - Michelle King Robson

    Empowher.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:03 myssnews.com
    EmpowHER Founder Michelle King Robson tells the story of her personal health struggles and how that led to creation of the women's health Web site EmpowHER.com. Transcript:  Hi, I'm Michelle King Robson, the founder of EmpowHER.com. At 42, I was told I needed a complete hysterectomy, which I got without question. Soon afterwards, my quality of life just tanked. I became a different person. I didn’t like myself. I had no energy. I was s…
  9. Are You at High Risk of Getting Into a Car Accident? Here's What You Need to Know

    Emaxhealth.com - Health
    02.23 / 00:02 emaxhealth.com
    Here's what you need to know about car accidents, staying safe, and factors you should consider if you ever get into a fender bender. Car accidents don't happen to everyone, but they're not exactly rare either. In 2015, there were 1,121 fatalities from car accidents in NY alone.Health and Wellness: Family HealthLatest News: Current…
  10. Can we talk about doing science and raising children?

    Fredhutch.org - Health
    02.22 / 23:55 fredhutch.org
    Fred Hutch researchers open up about the unique challenges of starting families during training — and offer tips for juggling the dual d…
  11. Adopted kids see long-lasting effects of Romanian orphanages

    Chippewa.com - Health
    02.22 / 23:51 chippewa.com
    LONDON (AP) -- Romanian children adopted from overcrowded orphanages in the 1990s were more likely to suffer psychological problems as adults compared to other children taken in by British families, according to a decades-long…
  12. Continued buzz about mercury in fish could bolster omega-3 supplements

    Nutraingredients.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.nutraingredients.com
    The gravity of questions about mercury in fish seems to depend on the particular expert’s point of view, with neurologists high on the concern curve. But those concerns could bolster the uptake of omega-3 supplements, one expert s…
  13. Is needing more sleep a sign of pending dementia?

    Cbsnews.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.cbsnews.com
    New study examines the amount of sleep older adults get each night and their risk of dementia down the…
  14. "Life isn't pretty": Mom shares photos of son to show harsh reality of cancer

    Cbsnews.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.cbsnews.com
    Thousands rally around 10-year-old boy battling leukemia for the second time after mom's post goes…
  15. Fingerprint-like pattern that evolves during development provides clues to mental health problems

    News-medical.net -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.news-medical.net
    Like a fingerprint, the connections of the human brain render us distinct from one another. In a study just published in Nature Neuroscience, researchers from the University of Oslo revealed that such a unique, fingerprint-like pattern evolves during development and is sensitive to mental…
  16. Bleeding Strokes Take Heavy Toll on Brain

    Drugs.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.drugs.com
    WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 -- Survivors of the most deadly type of stroke face a higher risk for developing depression and dementia, new research suggests. Often called "bleeding strokes," hemorrhagic strokes occur when a blood vessel ruptures…
  17. Race May Play Role in Recurrent Stroke

    Drugs.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.drugs.com
    WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 -- Strokes bring with them a heightened possibility of another attack, and new research suggests black patients may be at especially high risk for recurrence. The risk of recurrent stroke was up to 50 percent higher in…
  18. Is Need for More Sleep a Sign of Pending Dementia?

    Drugs.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.drugs.com
    WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 -- Seniors who begin sleeping more than nine hours a night may face a higher risk of dementia down the road, a new study suggests. The researchers estimated that the risk of dementia grew by almost 2.5 times for those…
  19. Unhealthy in Middle Age, Dementia in Old Age?

    Drugs.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.drugs.com
    WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 -- Middle-aged men and women at risk for heart disease may also face a higher chance of dementia later in life, a new study suggests. Risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure and diabetes might boost the odds…
  20. MRIs Can Be Safe for People With Heart Devices …

    Drugs.com -Health
    02.22 / 23:47 www.drugs.com
    WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 -- People with pacemakers or implantable defibrillators have long been told they can't undergo MRI scans. But a new study suggests that it can be safely done -- under the right conditions. The study, published in the Feb.…